Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA)
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), first mentioned in the Bali Action Plan 2007, are measures adopted by developing countries to mitigate climate change as part of a comprehensive process to effectively implement the UNFCCC. In 2009, member countries submitted their proposed NAMAs - in form of policies, regulations, standards, and programs - to the UNFCCC at COP15. This event also secured developed countries' promise to provide US$30 billion worth of funding for mitigation and adaptation actions in developing countries from 2010 to 2012 and mobilize an additional US$100 billion annually by 2020.
Although not stated explicitly in the Paris Agreement, NAMAs play a key role in achieving mitigation goals to hold the global temperature rise to below 2 °C of pre-industrial levels. NAMAs contribute to realizing Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) that countries submit to the UNFCCC as their committed efforts to address the global climate crisis.
By far, 46 countries have announced their NAMAs at national levels (see the interactive Pre-2020 NAMA map here). Individual actions contributing to realizing the national NAMA objectives are formulated and implemented under individual projects/programs/policies. They are submitted to the NAMA Registry, a platform that matches NAMAs and available international support. NAMAs submitted to the Registry need to specify the mitigation actions and technologies to be taken, the expected timeframe to achieve the goals, and estimated GHG emission reductions from the proposed actions. Countries are asked to propose a system to measure, monitor, and verify/evaluate the reductions as well as the projects' impact.
Currently, 22 NAMAS have received support, 171 are seeking support for preparation (73 items) and implementation (98 items), and 16 others have been submitted for recognition. Countries are also encouraged to share information for NAMAS implemented using domestic resources to be recognized for their efforts in mitigating GHG emissions. In the Rice sector, 2 NAMAs have been submitted to the NAMA Registry by Panama and Uganda, focusing on low-emission water management, adaptive rice varieties, and optimal uses of nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides.
NAMA Support Projects
NAMA Support Projects (NSPs) provide support for the implementation of parts of a NAMA. At COP18 in 2012, the governments of Germany and the UK announced the establishment of the NAMA Facility with the joint funding of €120 million to fund the implementation of the most innovative and transformational NAMAs seeking international support. The NAMA Facility welcomed Denmark and the European Commission as new donors in 2013 and 2014. To date, the Donors have committed EUR520 million to support climate actions in all countries on the OECD DAC list, 7 Calls for NSP submission have been launched, and 34 NSPs have been supported (see more in NAMA Facility Annual Report 2019).
In the Rice sector, the Thai Rice NAMA project has been implemented since 2018 with support from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. GIZ has been working with other countries such as Vietnam to develop NSPs to mitigate GHG emissions from rice.