1 Must Do, 5 Reductions

"One Must Do, Five Reductions" is a technology package that was developed during Phase IV of the IRRI's Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) and promoted by the Agricultural Competitiveness Project (ACP) of the World Bank. This technology package, which is predominant in Vietnam, recommends the use of certified seeds as the "One Must." The "Five Reductions" refers to reductions in seed rate, nitrogen application, pesticide use, water use, and post-harvest losses. By applying these technologies, farmers can better adapt to climate change. 

Climate change mitigation can be achieved through reduced water input in rice production by way of water-saving techniques like alternate wetting and drying or mid-season drainage. Both technologies reduce direct field emissions of methane which is the case with the traditional practice of continuous flooding. Furthermore, the safe AWD includes reduced consumption of nitrogen fertilizer and chemical pesticides which not only minimize nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields but also mitigates indirect emissions during the production of the inputs. 

Further reading