GHG mitigation in rice information kiosk

This website serves as an information kiosk for greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation options in rice production systems. It covers rice management practices, data on biophysical and socioeconomic suitability of farming technologies and practices, and policy actions in Bangladesh, Colombia, and Vietnam.


The challenge

Paddy rice is the staple crop for most of the world’s population. In 2012 rice was grown on more in about 164 million ha worldwide in more than 100 countries. Asia, with a total of some 650 million metric tons (MT), accounts for about 90% of rice production, followed by Latin America (25 million MT) and sub-Saharan Africa (21 million MT). Globally, irrigated lowland rice occurs on about 80 million ha and provides 75% of the world’s rice production. Irrigated rice is the most important rice production system for food security, particularly in Asia. Women’s labor plays a significant role in rice production—anywhere from 50% in Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines to as much as 80% in India and Bangladesh (CGIAR n.d.).

In 2012 rice was grown on more than 164 million ha worldwide, 75% of which are flooded rice systems. These flooded rice systems produce about 10% of anthropogenic emissions in the agriculture sector globally in the form of methane. But a number of practices involving management of water and organic inputs can decrease emissions, most notably alternate wetting and drying (AWD). The mitigation options in paddy rice is investigating how and where leading rice-producing countries can implement and scale up AWD to mitigate emissions and support farmers’ livelihoods.

How we work

The Paddy Rice Component of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition's (CCAC) Agriculture Initiative—the paddy rice component, in short—forms part of the Agriculture Initiative of the CCAC hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). A goal of the CCAC is to disseminate best practices for minimizing emission of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) from agriculture while enhancing productivity, ensuring food security, and improving livelihoods. The paddy rice component aims to provide technical and policy guidance for national governments to implement GHG mitigation options without yield penalty. In particular, it seeks to address major constraints to mitigation in paddy rice by identifying: (a) best management practices tailored to specific biophysical and socioeconomic settings found in different countries; and (b) incentives, technical support mechanisms, and enabling conditions to overcome barriers that men and women farmers face in using the new practices. The paddy rice component is implemented by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), with support from CCAC and CCAFS, and in collaboration with local partners from yield penalty. In particular, it seeks to address major constraints to mitigation in paddy rice by identifying: (a) best management practices tailored to specific biophysical and socioeconomic settings found in different countries; and (b) incentives, technical support mechanisms, and enabling conditions to overcome barriers that men and women farmers face in using the new practices. The paddy rice component is implemented by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), with support from CCAC and CCAFS, and in collaboration with local partners from Vietnam, Bangladesh and Colombia.


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The Mitigation Options to Reduce Methane Emissions in Paddy Rice, or the paddy rice component, forms part of the Agriculture Initiative of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).